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Producing urea requires three major steps. These are urea synthesis, urea purification, and granulation.

Urea Synthesis: synthesis begins by chemically reacting liquid ammonia and gaseous CO2 in a condenser to form ammonium carbamate. The carbamate flows into the urea reactor, where about half of it is converted to urea and water. Unconverted carbamate undergoes further processing to become urea.

Urea Purification: the urea solution next flows to the rectifying column, where more ammonia, CO2, and water are removed. After that, the purified solution moves through a series of vacuum evaporators, where removal of additional water produces a concentrated molten urea.

Granulation: granulation produces a moisture-resistant product well suited for blending with other fertilizer materials. Molten urea is first sprayed onto a moving bed of urea granules. Cool air drawn through the granulator “freezes” a new layer of urea onto the surface of the granules, which are then removed from the granulator and screened to the desired size. Air leaving the granulators is scrubbed with water to remove dust before venting to the atmosphere.


 


Urea production facility



Facility operator



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